Sunday, 24 March 2013

ENERGY SAVING LIGHT BULBS



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One of the reasons why more people haven't switched to energy-efficient lighting is because they see them as more expensive. Often people base this assessment on the purchase price only, rather than the whole-life cost of a light bulb. In a typical home lighting accounts for around 10-20% of the electricity bill, but you can lower this proportion by installing energy efficient bulbs and save on your overall energy bill. Installing five low energy light bulbs will cost about £15 and could save you as much as £32 a year. 


We are encouraged to switch from traditional light bulbs to more efficient energy saving light bulbs. This seems a sensible way to help contribute to saving the planet. Until you look at the cost of replacing your bulbs. These new energy efficient light bulbs are much more expensive to buy, so are they really significantly more efficient than traditional light bulbs?

Traditional light bulbs are known as filament or incandescent light bulbs. They heat up a wire filament inside the bulb, causing the bulb to light. It converts very little of the electricity it uses into light, and most of it is wasted as heat. In fact ninety percent of the energy used to illuminate a regular bulb is spent on heat rather than light. The downside of a filament light bulb is its short life, lasting 1,000 hours or one year's typical use. Turning them on and off regularly shortens their lives even more. These traditional light bulbs also tend to shorten the life of light fittings and shades.

Traditional bulbs have to be replaced much more often and they use five times the electricity of low energy light bulbs. Begin to think of light bulbs as one-off purchases that last many years, like a lamp itself, rather than something you simply throw away after a short time.

Energy efficient bulbs are do not waste so much energy on heat. There are a number of different kinds of low energy light bulbs available, including compact fluorescent light bulbs (CFLs), Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) and flouresant bulbs or tubes.

Compact fluorescent light bulbs (CFLs)
In terms of energy efficiency, switching to compact fluorescent light bulbs has more impact than anything else you can do. Nothing else comes anywhere near to this level of saving and improvement in efficiency. Compact fluorescent (CFL) light bulbs use only a fifth of the electricity compared to traditional light bulbs; in other words they are 400% more efficient.

Compact fluorescent bulbs come in a variety of shapes such as spiral, pear, golf-ball, globe, and candle. Covered shapes tend to have greater physical strength, as the fluorescent tube itself is hidden behind a layer of stronger glass. However this reduces their energy efficiency a little, sometimes being B rather than A rated (for comparison, incandescent bulbs are G rated). So, you should be able to find one to work with your existing light fittings.


When replacing an old-fashioned bulb with a CFL bulb, you need to use the one to five ratio . For example, if you are replacing a 100-watt incandescent bulb, a CFL bulb of 20 watts is required. CFLs are commonly available up to 23 watts and can be found as low as 5 watts.

CFLs vary in their 'colour temperature', expressed in degrees Kelvin (K). Higher temperatures mean whiter light, cooler temperatures mean yellower light. Some low energy bulbs have a colour temperature which is 'daylight balanced', and this is thought to help people who suffer from seasonal affective disorder (SAD).

Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs)
Light-emitting diodes (LED) light bulbs work when electrons are moved through a semi-conductive material. 

LED bulbs are the most expensive bulbs on the market, but they also last the longest. They last up to 25 times longer than a traditional filament bulb (up to 20 years), and cost significantly less to operate over the course of a year. LED lights have the advantage of reaching full illumination almost immediately, as well as being very compact. However, although they are good to replace low voltage halogen bulbs in the home they do not at present provide the quality of lighting that CFL light bulbs do. They are often used for security, garden or decorative lighting.

Fluorescent tubes
Fluorescent tubes are a source of efficient and effective lighting. Fluorescent tubes do have a limited life, although this will be several years. There is no foundation to the belief that fluorescent tubes use a huge amount of electricity when they are switched on. The extra electricity used is negligible.

If there are signs of flicker, or a tube looks as though it has failed, it is worth checking if you need a replacement 'starter' before you consider replacing the tube. A starter is a small cylinder with two small T shaped pins protruding from one end and only cost a couple of pounds.


For related articles click onto:
Conserving fossil fuels
Energy saving light bulbs
Fossil Fuels
Fossil fuels: Alternative sources of energy
What is acid rain?
What is global warming?
What is the difference between energy efficient light bulbs and traditional light bulbs?
What is the difference between hard and soft woods?
What is the difference between neon and fluorescent light?
What is fracking?
What is global warming?
What is the Gulf Stream?



Friday, 22 March 2013

FLU SYMPTOMS


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Flu shares some of the same symptoms as a cold such as sneezing, coughing and a sore throat, but they are caused by different viruses. There are around 200 viruses that cause colds and three that cause flu. There are many strains of these flu viruses, and the vaccine changes every year to protect against the most common ones. Flu can be much more serious than a cold.

Flu viruses are spread by droplets that are sneezed or coughed out by an infected person. Other people can breathe in these droplets or transfer the droplets to their eyes or nose on their fingers.



Flu usually comes on much more quickly than a cold, and symptoms include:
    • sudden fever of 38-40°C (100-104°F)
    • muscle aches and pains
    • sweating
    • feeling exhausted and needing to lie down
    • dry, chesty cough
    • sneezing
Flu symptoms appear one to three days after infection and most people recover within a week, although you will feel tired for longer. A severe cold can also cause muscle aches and fever, so it can be hard to tell the difference.

Some people need to take extra care as they're more at risk of serious chest complications, such as pneumonia and bronchitis. People over 65 are more at risk of complications. People under 65, including children, are more at risk of complications if they have serious heart or chest complaints, serious kidney disease or liver disease, diabetes, lowered immunity due to disease or medical treatment, had a stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA).  Pregnant women are also included in this risk group.

The best protection against the flu virus is a vaccination, and everyone in an at-risk group is eligible for a free flu jab.

Protect yourself and others against flu by coughing or sneezing into a tissue, throwing a used tissue away as soon as possible, washing your hands as soon as possible and having a flu jab every year if you're in an at-risk group.

If you're generally fit and healthy, you can usually manage the symptoms of flu yourself without seeing a doctor. Look after yourself by resting, drinking non-alcoholic fluids to avoid dehydration and avoiding strenuous activity. Painkillers such as ibuprofen or paracetamol can relieve aches and pains.

Wednesday, 20 March 2013

WHAT IS A FOOD INTOLERANCE?


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Food intolerances can give symptoms of digestive problems; including diarrhoea, bloating and stomach cramps. 

A food intolerance is an adverse reaction to a food or ingredient, occurring every time the food is eaten and particularly if large quantities are consumed. It may be caused by difficulties digesting certain substances, such as lactose. This is usually because the body doesn't produce enough of the particular chemical or enzyme that's needed for digestion of that food.

Food intolerances are rarely harmful but may cause unpleasant symptoms including nausea, bloating, abdominal pain and diarrhoea. Unlike an allergy, a food intolerance is never life-threatening as no allergic reaction takes place.

Symptoms can begin hours or days after eating or drinking the food in question. The severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of enzyme the person makes, and how much of the food has been consumed.

One of the most common food intolerances is triggered by cow's milk, which contains lactose. Many people have a shortage of the enzyme lactase which breaks down the lactose to be absorbed into the bloodstream. Another common example is a deficiency of an enzyme called alcohol dehydrogenase. Drinking even small amounts of alcohol can make affected people feel unwell. Some people have adverse reactions to chemical preservatives and additives in food and drinks, such as sulphites, benzoates, salicylates, monosodium glutamate, caffeine, aspartame and tartrazine.

Unlike a food allergy, the immune system is not activated when suffering from a food intolerance. Neither is a food intolerance the same as food poisoning, which is caused by toxic substances that would cause symptoms in anyone who ate the food. 

The easiest test for a food intolerance is to remove the food from your diet. Wait and see if symptoms improve, then try reintroducing the food. If symptoms return, an intolerance is likely.

For related articles click onto:

WHAT IS A FOOD ALLERGY?



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Food allergies have symptoms of digestive problems; including diarrhoea, bloating and stomach cramps. However, a food intolerance is not the same as a food allergy and there are key differences between them.

A food allergy occurs when the body's immune system reacts abnormally to specific foods, mistaking protein in the food as a threat to the body. As a result it releases a number of chemicals to prevent what it sees as an infection taking hold. It is these chemicals that cause the symptoms of an allergic reaction.

Common symptoms include an itchy sensation inside the mouth, throat or ears; raised itchy red skin rash and swelling of the face and around the eyes, lips, tongue and the roof of the mouth.
Any food could cause an allergic reaction, but there are certain foods that are responsible for most food allergies. In adults common food allergies include fruits, vegetables and shellfish. Children are more commonly allergic to milk, eggs, fish and shellfish. Nut allergies are relatively common in both children and adults.

Allergic reactions are often mild, but they can sometimes be very serious. In the most serious cases, a person has a severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis) which can be life-threatening. Antihistamine can help relieve the symptoms of a mild to moderate allergic reaction, whilst adrenaline is an effective treatment for anaphylaxis.

Most food allergies affect younger children aged under the age of three, although most children will outgrow food allergies to milk, eggs, soya and wheat by the time they start school. Food allergies that develop during adulthood, or persist into adulthood, are likely to be lifelong allergies. Peanut allergies are more persistent, with an estimated four out of five children remaining allergic to peanuts for the rest of their life.

It is still uncertain why people develop allergies to food, although often people with a food allergy have other allergic conditions such as asthma, hay fever and eczema. For reasons that are unclear, rates of food allergies have risen sharply in the last 20 years.

There is no treatment to cure a food allergy. The best way of preventing an allergic reaction is to identify the type of food that causes the allergy and then avoid it in future.


For related articles click onto:

COLD SYMPTOMS


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Cold viruses are spread by droplets that are sneezed or coughed out by an infected person. Other people can breathe in these droplets or transfer the droplets to their eyes or nose on their fingers.

A cold usually begins with fatigue, a feeling of being chilled, sneezing and a headache, followed in a couple of days by a runny nose and cough.  People with a cold may also suffer with a mild fever, earache, tiredness and headache. 

Symptoms of a cold include:
    • runny nose, beginning with clear mucus that develops into thicker, green mucus as the cold progresses
    • blocked nose
    • sore throat
    • sneezing
    • cough
 Symptoms may begin within 16 hours of exposure and typically peak two to four days after onset. Symptoms develop over one or two days and gradually get better after a few days.They usually resolve in seven to ten days but some can last for up to three weeks.In severe cases some people develop a post-viral cough which can linger after the infection is gone.

Colds and flu both share some of the same symptoms such as sneezing, coughing and a sore throat, but they are caused by different viruses. There are around 200 viruses that cause colds and three that cause flu. 

A cold is most contagious during the early stages when the person has a runny nose and sore throat.Protect yourself and others against colds by coughing or sneezing into a tissue, throwing a used tissue away as soon as possible, washing your hands as soon as possible and having a flu jab every year if you're in an at-risk group.

If you're generally fit and healthy, you can usually manage the symptoms of a cold yourself without seeing a doctor. Look after yourself by resting, drinking non-alcoholic fluids to avoid dehydration and avoiding strenuous activity. Painkillers such as ibuprofen or paracetamol can relieve aches and pains.

Sunday, 17 March 2013

ALLERGIES


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An Allergy is an adverse reaction that the body has to a particular food or substance within the environment. Most substances that cause allergies are not harmful and have no effect on people who are not allergic.


In the UK one person in four will suffer from an allergy at some point in their lifetime. This number is increasing every year, with up to half of those affected being children. The reason for this rise is unclear, although some experts believe it is associated with pollution or caused by living in a cleaner, germ-free environment which reduces the number of germs our immune system has to deal with. Some people are genetically more likely to develop an allergy, particularly boys or babies who had a low birth weight.

An allergy develops when the body’s immune system reacts to an allergen as if it is a threat, and produces antibodies to fight off the allergen. The body remembers previous exposure to the allergen and when exposed again produces more of the antibodies, causing the release of chemicals in the body that lead to the allergic reaction.

The most common symptoms are sneezing, runny nose, itchy eyes, wheezing, coughing and dermatitis. Allergic reactions are often mild, but they can sometimes be very serious. In the most serious cases, a person has a severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis) which can be life-threatening.

Allergens that trigger allergies include pollen, house dust mites, mould, pets, wasps and bees, industrial and household chemicals. In addition you can also be allergic to foods such as milk, nuts (mainly peanuts), fruit and eggs; as well as medicines, metals and latex.

Common allergic disorders include asthmaeczemahay fever and urticaria. Hay fever is caused by contact with pollen, whilst eczema can be triggered by foods, house dust mites, pollen or pet hair. Asthma can be triggered by allergens such as pets, house dust mite droppings in dust, pollens and moulds. Urticaria can occur as part of an allergic reaction to foods, drugs and insect stings.


The most effective way of managing an allergy is to avoid all contact with the allergen causing the reaction. Taking medication can't cure your allergy, but it can treat the common symptoms. Antihistamine can help relieve the symptoms of a mild to moderate allergic reaction, whilst adrenaline is an effective treatment for anaphylaxis


For related articles click onto:


Saturday, 16 March 2013

WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A FOOD INTOLERANCE AND A FOOD ALLERGY?


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Both food intolerances and allergies have similar symptoms of digestive problems; including diarrhoea, bloating and stomach cramps. However, a food intolerance is not the same as a food allergy and there are key differences between them.

Food intolerance

A food intolerance is an adverse reaction to a food or ingredient, occurring every time the food is eaten and particularly if large quantities are consumed. It may be caused by difficulties digesting certain substances, such as lactose. This is usually because the body doesn't produce enough of the particular chemical or enzyme that's needed for digestion of that food.


Food intolerances are rarely harmful but may cause unpleasant symptoms including nausea, bloating, abdominal pain and diarrhoea. Unlike an allergy, a food intolerance is never life-threatening as no allergic reaction takes place.

Symptoms can begin hours or days after eating or drinking the food in question. The severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of enzyme the person makes, and how much of the food has been consumed.

One of the most common food intolerances is triggered by cow's milk, which contains lactose. Many people have a shortage of the enzyme lactase which breaks down the lactose to be absorbed into the bloodstream. Another common example is a deficiency of an enzyme called alcohol dehydrogenase. Drinking even small amounts of alcohol can make affected people feel unwell. Some people have adverse reactions to chemical preservatives and additives in food and drinks, such as sulphites, benzoates, salicylates, monosodium glutamate, caffeine, aspartame and tartrazine.

Unlike a food allergy, the immune system is not activated when suffering from a food intolerance. Neither is a food intolerance the same as food poisoning, which is caused by toxic substances that would cause symptoms in anyone who ate the food.

The easiest test for a food intolerance is to remove the food from your diet. Wait and see if symptoms improve, then try reintroducing the food. If symptoms return, an intolerance is likely.

Food allergy

A food allergy occurs when the body's immune system reacts abnormally to specific foods, mistaking protein in the food as a threat to the body. As a result it releases a number of chemicals to prevent what it sees as an infection taking hold. It is these chemicals that cause the symptoms of an allergic reaction.

Common symptoms include an itchy sensation inside the mouth, throat or ears; raised itchy red skin rash and swelling of the face and around the eyes, lips, tongue and the roof of the mouth.
Any food could cause an allergic reaction, but there are certain foods that are responsible for most food allergies. In adults common food allergies include fruits, vegetables and shellfish. Children are more commonly allergic to milk, eggs, fish and shellfish. Nut allergies are relatively common in both children and adults.

Allergic reactions are often mild, but they can sometimes be very serious. In the most serious cases, a person has a severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis) which can be life-threatening. Antihistamine can help relieve the symptoms of a mild to moderate allergic reaction, whilst adrenaline is an effective treatment for anaphylaxis.

Most food allergies affect younger children aged under the age of three, although most children will outgrow food allergies to milk, eggs, soya and wheat by the time they start school. Food allergies that develop during adulthood, or persist into adulthood, are likely to be lifelong allergies. Peanut allergies are more persistent, with an estimated four out of five children remaining allergic to peanuts for the rest of their life.

It is still uncertain why people develop allergies to food, although often people with a food allergy have other allergic conditions such as asthma, hay fever and eczema. For reasons that are unclear, rates of food allergies have risen sharply in the last 20 years.

There is no treatment to cure a food allergy. The best way of preventing an allergic reaction is to identify the type of food that causes the allergy and then avoid it in future.


For related articles click onto:

Wednesday, 13 March 2013

WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN AN ASTEROID AND A COMET?



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We all know how the Hollywood film goes; a giant comet is plummeting towards Earth and the hero has to stop it in order to save the world from destruction. But what exactly is a comet? And how does it differ from an asteroid? And what is a meteorite?


Asteroids and comets are both classified as near-Earth objects. Both asteroids and comets were formed early in the history of the solar system about 4.5 billion years ago.

Comet
Comets are composed of ice, rock, and organic (carbon-based) compounds and are believed to have formed in the cold outer solar system farther from the Sun where ices would not melt. Comets consist of substantial amounts of ice and volatile material, so as the comet approaches the Sun the ice vaporizes and creates a "fuzzy" appearance.

Comets follow highly elliptical paths, approaching the inner solar system and then retreating to a considerable distance from the Sun. If they stayed close in to the Sun all the ice would vaporize, and they would cease to be comets.

Asteroid
Asteroids are made of rock or metal and are thought to have been created in the warmer inner solar system closer to the Sun, where it was too warm for ice to remain solid. An asteroid can have a diameter anywhere from a few meters to a few hundred kilometres. There are only about 200 asteroids which have diameters exceeding 100 kilometres.


Most asteroids in the solar system are located in the 'asteroid belt', where they orbit the sun in the space between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. Asteroids are different from planets and moons mainly because of their much smaller size, and they differ from comets because they have neither a coma nor a tail.

Meteoroids
A meteoroid is a small rock or particle of debris in our solar system. When asteroids collide, meteoroids often result. They range in size from dust to around 10 metres in diameter (larger objects are usually referred to as asteroids). Meteoroids are also formed when a comet passes near the sun, and the heat releases dust particles from the comet's icy tail. They glow brightly after being heated by friction as they enter and pass through Earth's atmosphere.


Meteor
When a meteoroid or asteroid enters the Earth's atmosphere it ignites creating a visible streak of light called a meteor. If you’ve ever looked up at the sky at night and seen a streak of light or ‘shooting star’ what you are actually seeing is a meteor.

Meteorite
A meteoroid that survives falling through the Earth’s atmosphere and collides with the Earth’s surface is known as a meteorite.




For related articles click onto:
Acid rain and its effect on wildlife
Causes of acid rain
Conserving fossil fuels
Energy saving light bulbs
Fossil Fuels
Fossil fuels: Alternative sources of energy
What is acid rain?
What is a solar eclipse?
What is global warming?
Why is the Dead Sea so salty?
What is a light year?
What is the greenhouse effect?
What is the difference between a particle and an atom?
What is lightning?
What is the difference between a planet and a star?


Monday, 11 March 2013

WHAT IS A POTAGER?




A potager is a French term for an ornamental vegetable or kitchen garden. The French named their kitchen gardens 'Jardin Potager'. The historical design precedent originated from the Gardens of the French Renaissance and Baroque eras.  Today this term is used to describe a decorative garden where fruit, vegetables and herbs are grown in a plot in a ornamental fashion. 


The Potager is more than a vegetable plot.  It is a formal, decorative kitchen garden that places vegetables at the top of the bill, whether they are suitable as crops or just for orientation. The beauty in the garden is the celebration of the vegetables, herbs and fruit on their own merit.


The potager is a usually set away from the formal lawns and ornamental plants.  The arrangement of the crops is just as important as the production of food. These herbs and vegetables are often interpolated with flowering plants and shrubs, but the main features are the vegetables. Non-food plants play a supporting role in the potager but never take centre stage. The kitchen garden has year-round visual appeal and can incorporate permanent perennials or woody shrub plantings among the annuals.

Potagers are formal in design, often conforming to geometric patterns and beds are typically enclosed by dwarf hedging.  Often the paths are gravel or stone.  Arches often run across paths and are covered with runner beans, grapes and roses.

Plants are grown in groups for maximum effect.  Ornamental vegetables are grown as specimens amongst the beds.  Vegetables are set out in beds to contrast with each other with regards to form, texture and colour.  Swiss chard, with its white veins and stalks, or red varieties of celery and brussel sprouts make unusual plating combinations. The ferny leaves of the carrot, the red stalks of beetroot and yellow marjoram all contrast well.  This is an opportunity to showcase vegetables in a formal garden style to dazzling effect.

For related articles click onto:
Differences between vegetables and fruit
Feeding plants
How to grow parsley
Green manure: Broad beans
Patio gardens
Preparing a seed bed
Potagers
Pruning trees and hedges
Soil structure
What is a potager?
What is a vegetable?
What is the difference between a vegetable and a fruit?
Vegetable crop rotation

Thursday, 7 March 2013

WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN BAKING SODA AND BAKING POWDER?



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Baking soda, bicarbonate of soda and baking powder are all leavening agents, which means they are added to baked goods before cooking to produce carbon dioxide and cause them to rise. Some recipes call for baking soda, while others call for baking powder. Which ingredient is used depends on the other ingredients in the recipe. The goal is to produce a tasty product with a pleasing texture.


Baking soda / Bicarbonate of soda
Baking soda and bicarbonate of soda are in fact different names for the same product. When added to a wet mixture this alkali causes air bubbles to expand when cooked, causing it to rise. 

Baking soda/bicarbonate of soda needs to be mixed with moisture and an acidic ingredient for the chemical reaction to take place. Because it needs an acid to create the rising quality, it is often used in recipes where there is already an acidic ingredient present, such as vinegar, citrus juice, sour cream, yogurt, molasses, fruits, lemon juice, chocolate, buttermilk or honey. 

The reaction begins immediately upon mixing the ingredients, so you need to bake recipes which call for baking soda immediately, or they will not rise.

Baking soda/bicarbonate of soda give a slightly different quality to that of baking powder when used in cooking. It gives a lovely golden colour and makes a very specific texture not achievable with baking powder. It can have a slightly tangy taste which can quite easily become bitter unless countered by the acidity of another ingredient or soapy if too much is used. Baking soda is about four times as strong as baking powder.

Baking powder
Baking powder contains bicarbonate of soda, but comes pre-mixed with the acidic ingredient (usually cream of tartar) for you as well as a drying ingredient (usually starch such as corn flour). Baking powder contains both an acid and a base and has an overall neutral effect in terms of taste. Recipes that call for baking powder often call for other neutral-tasting ingredients and is a common ingredient in cakes and biscuits.

Most baking powder used today is double-acting which means it reacts twice; to liquid and heat in two separate stages. The first reaction takes place when you add the baking powder to the batter and it is moistened and the acid reacts with the baking soda and produces carbon dioxide gas. The second reaction takes place when the batter is placed in the oven and the gas cells expand causing the batter to rise. Because of the two stages, baking of the batter can be delayed for about 15-20 minutes without it losing its leavening power.

Too much baking powder can cause the batter to be bitter tasting. It can also cause the batter to rise rapidly and then collapse. This will result in the air bubbles growing too large and breaking, and the cake having a coarse, fragile crumb with a fallen centre. Too little baking powder results in a tough cake that has poor volume and a compact crumb.

You can make your own baking powder by simply mixing two parts cream of tartar with one part bicarbonate of soda.


Photos care of http://www.coloradovegan.com/, http://www.lovefood.com/, http://www.oetker.co.uk/ and http://casualkitchen.blogspot.co.uk/

Monday, 4 March 2013

RECIPE FOR CHICKEN FAJITAS


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Fajitas are fantastic to serve at a family meal, as everyone has fun making up there fajitas and adding their salsas and sauces to their specific requirements. This dinner is healthy too as it contains 2 of your 5 A DAY portions, and you can vary the ingredients to satisfy everyone. 

Oh, and its even more fun to theme the meal as a Mexican night……..or is that just me? 
Serves 4


Ingredients 
For the fajitas:
8 soft flour tortillas
4 skinless chicken breasts 
1 packet of fajita mix
1 tablespoon olive oil 
1 onion 
1 red and 1 green pepper 
5 mushrooms 

To serve:
Tomatoes 
Spring onions
Cucumber
Lettuce
Tomato salsa 
Guacamolel
Sour cream and chives dip

Method
Heat the oil in a large pan. 

Chop the chopped onion and dice chicken, and add to the pan. Fry for around three minutes or until the chicken turns white. Chop the peppers and mushrooms, add to the pan and stir. 

Cook until the vegetables have softened. Stir in the fajita mix and continue to fry on a low heat.

Prepare a mixed salad of tomatoes, spring onions, cucumber and lettuce leaves. Place the dips and sauces into serving dishes.